trauma and hypnotherapy February 05

Childhood Trauma Recovery. A Warm Welcome From David Hosier MSc.

‘The mind is its own place, and in itself can make a heav’n of hell, a hell of heav’n.’ -John Milton, Paradise Lost (1667),  Book 1, lines 254-255 The articles on this site are intended to serve as an accessible, informative, concise introduction to childhood trauma and child abuse and their relationship to post traumatic stress disorder […]

Potential Parental Exploitation of the Talented Child

It is well established that, occasionally, parents may exploit the talents of their child to benefit themselves. Benefits may include social recognition and financial gain. Such parents may, too, have an emotional need to live their lives vicariously through their child. This phenomenon is common enough to have been given a name : Achievement By […]

Why can Effects of Childhood Trauma be Delayed?

Delayed onset post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) ,which can occur as a result of a severely disrupted childhood, is defined by the DSM (Diagnostic Statistical Manual) as PTSD which develops at least six months after the traumatic event/s; however, PTSD can take much longer than this to manifest itself. One reason why PTSD may not […]

How Mothers with BPD can make Us Feel

I have already written articles about the effects a mother with borderline personality disorder (BPD) can have on us. These were Effects of Mothers with Borderline Personality on Their Children (click here to read) and Four Types of Borderline Mother (click here to read). However, in this article I wish to concentrate upon how the […]

Abnormal Behaviours Arising when We’re Uncared For.

Being cared for as an infant and child is clearly of fundamental importance to our survival. Because of this, humans have evolved, through Darwinian natural selection, forms of behaviour which help to elicit care from others, particularly, of course, from the primary care-giver (an obvious example is that of the baby who will scream and […]

The Process by which our Adult Relationships can be Ruined

As we grow up, we form MENTAL MODELS representing what our relationships with others are like. The term that psychologists often use to refer to such mental models is INTERPERSONAL SCHEMA. These interpersonal schema develop from early infancy and throughout childhood. Overwhelmingly, the form they take is influenced by the quality of our relationships with […]

Childhood Trauma : Reactions to Trauma According to Age

Trauma affects children in different ways depending upon the age group they fall into. In this article, I will look at how 3 different age groups may be affected ;These are : – very young children (0-3 years) – young children (4-11 years) – adolescents VERY YOUNG CHILDREN : it is a myth that just […]

Childhood Trauma Leading to Self-Hatred and Intense Self-Criticism

Following a childhood in which we had the experience of neglect, abuse, abandonment or a combination of  these, it very frequently follows that we grow up to become intensely self-critical and even consumed by feelings of self-hatred. Indeed, these are both key symptoms of clinical depression and also of complex post-traumatic stress disorder (CPTSD) – […]

PTSD – What Happens in the Brain?

Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is one of the potentially devastating effects that may follow on from childhood trauma, and, in this context, the condition is frequently referred to as ‘complex PTSD.’ But what is actually happening inside of the brain in individuals who are suffering from this most serious condition? To answer this question, it […]

Childhood Trauma, Genes and Susceptibility to Depression

A study conducted at the University of Cambridge in the UK, involving 238 teenagers between the ages of 15 and 18 years, focused on investigating how GENES AND ENVIRONMENT INTERACT and in what ways this interaction increases or decreases an individual’s chances of being. diagnosed with depression in later life. ABOVE : Brain scans reveal […]

February 14

Chronic Depression, Childhood Trauma and Life Events

A recent research study, carried out by Wiersma et al, focused on possible causes of chronic depression (chronic depression is long-lasting depression which has been continuous for two years or more – 20% of those with major depression suffer from this chronic form of it. When major depression is also chronic, it is particularly serious; […]

An Examination of the Exquisite Emotional Sensitivity of BPD Sufferers.

Those who develop borderline personality disorder (BPD), often as a result of severe childhood trauma, are, without exception, EXTREMELY EMOTIONALLY VULNERABLE. An expert researcher into the condition of BPD, Shari Manning PhD, has identified three areas of emotional functioning which appear to be different in individuals who suffer from BPD compared to those individuals who […]

Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD) – Four Subtypes

Borderline personality disorder is frequently linked to the experience of severe childhood trauma (click here to read my article about how the two are thought to be connected). An expert on the subject of borderline personality disorder (BPD), Theodore Milton, has proposed FOUR SUBTYPES of this serious disorder. These four subtypes are : 1) THE […]

BPD and the Science Behind Self-Harming Behaviour

Those who sought to stigmatize the very serious and distressing psychological condition known as borderline personality disorder, or BPD (sometimes now referred to as complex post traumatic stress disorder, or CPTSD) used to like (and perhaps still do) to put forward the theory that self-harming behaviour in those suffering from BPD is ‘merely’attention seeking (ridiculous […]

Childhood Trauma, BPD, Carl Jung and ‘The Peter Pan Syndrome.’

First, it should be stated that the so-called ‘Peter Pan Syndrome’ is not an official psychiatric term and will not be found in the DSM (diagnostic statistical manual). However, many psychologists find it a useful concept and I include reference to it on this site as it shares many elements in common with borderline personality […]

Conditions which Often Co-exist with BPD – The Statistics

Unfortunately, many of those who suffer from the debilitating and distressing disorder of borderline personality disorder (BPD) following severe childhood trauma have the added burden of having to try to somehow cope with co-existing conditions ; these are referred to by psychologists as co-morbitities. Below, I list these possible co-morbidities, together with the statistical probability […]

Actions that Help and Hinder a Family Member’s Recovery from BPD.

There are many things that a family can do to help a member of that family to recover from borderline personality disorder (BPD). However, there are also things they can do which may hinder the family member’s recovery. Let’s look at each of these in turn : THINGS THAT CAN BE DONE TO AID A FAMILY MEMBER’S […]

Can Child Abuse Lead to the Later Adult Development of Paedophilia?

Introduction : some research into the phenomenon of paedophilia : In the UK, the popular media seems to be obsessed and hysterical in relation to the subject of paedophilia. But what does the research tell us? For example, can, as is commonly assumed by the general public, child abuse make it more likely that the […]

Infant Attachment Problems with Caregiver and the Later Development of BPD.

Humans, as primates, are deeply social animals. The need to form attachments with others, and, most crucially, with the primary caregiver, has evolved as a survival mechanism, as attachments help to protect us from the danger others may pose and thus reduce our fear of being harmed, or, especially in the case of our more […]

Borderline Personality Disorder – The Role of Childhood Trauma and Other Factors

Several of my articles have already examined, in some detail, environmental factors in childhood which put the individual at risk of developing borderline personality disorder (BPD) as an adult (however, for those of you who are not familiar with them, I will summarize them at the end of this article). Before I do that, however, I […]

BPD, Alcoholism and Impulsivity

It is not uncommon for alcoholism and borderline personality disorder (BPD) to go hand-in-hand (click here to read my article on the relationship between alcoholism and childhood trauma). Those suffering from both alcoholism and BPD are particularly likely to have problems controlling their impulsivity. The reason for this is the twin effects of alcoholism and […]

BPD : Effective and Simple Self-Help.

In this article I will suggest some very simple, yet highly effective, things that individuals who suffer from borderline personality disorder (BPD) can carry out to alleviate symptoms of the condition. It should first be stated that it is extremely important, as far as is possible, for sufferers of BPD to avoid, or minimize, stress. This is because it […]

Borderline Personality Disorder – Possible Psychotic Symptoms

Occasionally, some individuals who suffer from borderline personality disorder (BPD) may develop transient (short-lasting) psychotic symptoms ; these are also sometimes referred to as : psychotic episodes, psychotic experiences or ‘breaks from reality.’ What is Psychosis? Psychosis can involve : – seeing things which are not there (visual hallucinations) – hearing things which are not […]

Why Females are More Likely to be Diagnosed with BPD than Men.

Approximately 70% of those diagnosed with borderline personality disorder (BPD) are female. So why does BPD appear to be more prevalent amongst women than men? Several theories seek to address this question, and, below, I give details of the main explanations that have been put forward : 1) Women are more likely to seek medical […]

Common Misunderstandings About Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD)

Due to the fact that borderline personality disorder (BPD) is a highly complex condition, there are, notoriously, many misunderstandings and misconceptions surrounding the true nature of this extremely serious psychiatric illness ; they include the following : 1) The condition is untreatable – unfortunately, until relatively recently, many of those working in the field of […]

BPD : The Twin Effects of Biparental Dysfunction and Invalidation of Experience

The most up-to-date research into the causes of borderline personality disorder (BPD) indicates that the following two factors are especially likely to put an young person at risk of developing BPD in later life. These are : 1) Biparental dysfunction – in essence, this means that their is an enduring, seriously problematic relationship between the young person and both […]

Childhood Trauma: The Possible Effects of Uninvolved Parents

The psychologists Baumrind, Maccoby and Martin have, between them, identified four main types of parenting style. These are : a) Authoritarian, b) Authoritative, c) Permissive and, d) Uninvolved. In this article, I wish to concentrate on the fourth parenting style – UNINVOLVED,  as the research indicates that it is this one that does the greatest […]

Childhood Trauma’s Link to Hypersexuality in Later Life

Hypersexuality, also referred to as erotomania , or, more straightforwardly, sexual addiction, has been linked to traumatic experiences during the sufferer’s childhood. This does not imply, of course, that all those who suffer childhood trauma will go on to become hypersexual in adulthood, nor that there aren’t other causes (there are – such as some neurological conditions which it […]

Childhood Trauma, Stress and the Vulnerable Developing Brain

Both studies conducted on animals and humans conclusively reveal that long-term and severe stress have a harmful effect upon the brain. If the brain is harmed in such a manner, an individual’s chances of developing mental illness is considerably increased. However, there is also good news : if the brain incurs such damage, this is frequently reversible […]

The Long-Term Effects of Parental Rejection

My father walked out on my mother when I was eight. Always highly disturbed, my mother became yet worse, and threw me out of the house when I was thirteen. This made it necessary for me to go and live with my father and his new wife, where I was not wanted. Indeed, the sense […]

Childhood Trauma : The Roots of Codependency

Although the widely recognized condition of CODEPENDENCY is not currently included in the DSM (Diagnostic Statistical Manual), most psychologists define it as a psychological condition that creates a psychological need in individuals to form relationships with other people, who, due to their own psychiatric condition, are likely to be excessively demanding, controlling and exploitative (a prime example being those […]

Childhood Trauma : Early Signs of Psychopathy

First, it is important to state that diagnosing childhood psychological disturbance is fraught with difficulties as, once the child enters adolescence, behavioural problems are very far from uncommon, especially irritability, mood fluctuations, boundary testing/defiance and breaking social rules. However, the DSM (Diagnostic Statistical Manual) does list six conditions related to childhood conduct problems. It should be noted, […]

Psychopathy : Further Research into Its Link to Childhood Trauma

‘When I was a boy I never had a friend in the world.’ – Heinrich Pommerencke, convicted German serial killer. Traditionally, psychological research into psychopaths (or, as they are now more accurately referred to, individuals with anti-social behaviour disorder) has tended to focus upon their aberrant behaviour as opposed to the factors which led to […]

Responding and Adjusting to the Effects of Trauma : Five Stages

One of the world’s leading experts on the effects of traumatic experience is the psychologist Mardi Horowitz, and it is he who proposed the five stage model of how we respond and adjust to traumatic experience. The five stages that Horowitz describes are as follows : HOROWITZ’S FIVE STAGE MODEL OF HOW WE RESPOND AND […]

The Effects of Emotionally Distant Parents on the Child.

Clearly, the child has both physical and emotional needs that the parents have a responsibility to meet. Both are obviously of vital importance. Often, however, a child may be well provided for in a material sense, but utterly deprived of emotional nurturance. This places the child in a state of psychological conflict, even turmoil.  He […]

Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD) and Sexuality

In several of my previous posts on the topic of borderline personality disorder (BPD), I have referred to how those who suffer from this serious condition tend to be highly impulsive, and, as might be anticipated, research now shows that this tendency towards impulsivity is likely to extend into sexual behaviours. Indeed, many empirical studies have […]

The Type of Parent Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD) Sufferers Have.

Parents of individuals who go on to develop borderline personality disorder (BPD) in their adult life are typically extremely needy, sensitive (especially to rejection), and inadequate (in as far as they lack the necessary inner resources to be an effective parent). Often, such a parent is likely to be preoccupied with her own feelings at […]

The Main Elements Of Posttraumatic Growth

Many people, after suffering a terrible trauma, find that, once they have got through it and started to recover from its damaging psychological effects, they eventually reach a stage whereby they are able to use their adverse experiences to develop them as a person in highly positive ways that benefits both themselves and society at large. This has […]

Signs of Dysfunctional Families

It has already been established in other articles that those who grow up in highly dysfunctional families are more likely than others to develop mental illness later in life (for example. borderline personality disorder, or BPD – click here to read my article on the link between childhood trauma and the later development of this serious […]

Why Borderline Personality Disorder Sufferers Should be Optimistic

Mercifully, the days of mental health professionals believing that borderline personality disorder (BPD) is an untreatable condition are over. Empirical studies are rapidly accruing, demonstrating that there ARE now effective therapies (for example, dialectical behaviour therapy, also known as DBT – click here to read my article on this). Furthermore, it is now acknowledged that BPD is an […]

Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD) and Intense Emotions.

One of the main hallmarks of suffering from borderline personality disorder (BPD) is the experiencing of  overwhelmingly extreme and intense emotions which are prone to change very rapidly and which the individual has great difficulty controlling. Psychologists call this serious problem emotional dysregulation. Examples include becoming engulfed by powerful feelings of rage in response to events which […]

Overcoming Guilt Caused by Childhood Trauma

If we have been mistreated as children, we may well grow up with a pervasive feeling that we are irredeemably ‘bad’ people (click here to read my article on why this happens). This can lead to what has been termed ‘neurotic guilt’ ; this occurs when we feel a sense of shame about ourselves and […]

Childhood Trauma – Steps to Recovery

It is important to remember that, no matter how severe our particular experiences of childhood trauma were, people can, and do, recover from such experiences if they undergo an appropriate form of therapy ; cognitive behavioural therapy, or CBT (click here to read my article on how CBT can help) for example, is now well established by […]

Childhood Trauma : Coping with Rejection.

‘We are never so defenceless against suffering as when we love, never so unhelplessly unhappy as when we have lost our loved object or its love’ Sigmund Freud, 1856 – 1939 My mother threw me out of the house when I was thirteen years old, so it was necessary for me to go and live […]

The Science of Meditation, Stress Reduction and Resilience – Video

Here is a video of a discussion between neuroscientists about the science behind mindfulness meditation and how we can use it to reduce feelings of stress and depression and become more resilient in relation to the occurrence of adverse events in our lives. To view the video.  CLICK HERE.

Childhood Trauma : Three Key Stages of Recovery.

The psychologist and expert on trauma, Judith Herman, has identified three key stages that it is necessary for those who suffered childhood trauma to pass through on their journey to recovery. I have summarized these three stages below : STAGE ONE : This stage involves focusing on the symptoms that many suffer as a result […]

How Borderline Personality Disorder is Viewed by Different Schools of Thought – Infographic

The diagram below summarizes how different schools of thought interpret borderline personality disorder (BPD) – To read my article on dialectical behaviour therapy CLICK HERE – To read my article on cognitive therapy CLICK HERE All 3 eBooks, by David Hosier MSc, available on Amazon. To view eBooks or purchase (immediate download) CLICK HERE David Hosier […]

Effects of Childhood Trauma on Work Performance – An Infographic

The infographic below shows the kind of effects our experience of childhood trauma may have upon our work performance in later life :

Study Suggesting Meditation More Effective Than Anti-depressants

A recent research study, carried out jointly by researchers from the University of Exeter and King’s College, University of London, demonstrated that mindfulness meditation can be more effective at treating depression than anti-depressant medication. In the study, which comprised 123 volunteers suffering from depression, the participants were split into two groups : GROUP 1 : […]

Can Effects of Childhood Trauma be Fully Resolved?

The resolution of childhood trauma is best viewed as an on-going process throughout one’s life. Different issues related to the trauma are likely to be resolved at different stages in life, and, even once resolved, may be re-triggered at times of acute stress ; this is especially likely if the individual experiences in later life […]

Factors that Influence the Severity of Effects of Child Abuse

The degree to which a person who suffers abuse during childhood is damaged by the experience will depend upon a number of different factors. Those who research such factors have split them into two groups : 1) RISK FACTORS – these are factors connected to the abuse that are likely to increase the emotional damage it […]